What is sterilisation?
Sterilisation in women refers to a permanent procedure done to prevent pregnancy. It works by preventing the egg from moving to the uterus, as well as blocking the passage of sperm to the area in which fertilisation occurs. Sterility is permanent after the procedure, which is also known as tubal ligation, has taken place.
Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure where the fallopian tubes are cut or sealed. Often referred to as getting your tubes tied, sterilisation is normally performed using minimally invasive surgery called laparoscopic surgery. It can also be done immediately after a vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery. Nonsurgical sterilisation involves the use of devices inserted through the vagina and uterus into the fallopian tubes to seal them closed. The placement of these devices doesn’t require an incision.
How does it work?
During laparoscopic surgery, your surgeon will make incisions in your abdomen and use a laparoscope to close the fallopian tubes. In some cases, the fallopian tubes are removed completely. For more on minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery, see here. This kind of sterilisation procedure is highly effective and has permanent results. It is also safe and convenient for patients who have decided that they do not want to become pregnant.
Another option is to undergo a procedure known as a mini-laparotomy, which is performed a day or two after giving birth. Your surgeon will make an incision in the abdomen and remove part of the fallopian tubes on each side.
Hysteroscopic sterilisation refers to a procedure where small coils are inserted through the cervix and uterus into the fallopian tubes. After the coils are placed, scar tissue develops around them, causing the tubes to seal closed. This procedure does not stop periods, nor does it protect from sexually transmitted diseases. Hysteroscopic sterilisation is done after the end of your menstrual cycle.