What is urogynaecological surgery?
Urogynaecology, also called Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, is a subspecialty of urology and gynaecology. The pelvic floor consists of ligaments, muscles and supportive connective tissues, which form the structure that supports the internal organs like the bladder, bowel, vagina, uterus and rectum. Damage to the pelvic floor and weakening of the tissues is normally due to:
- Trauma from childbirth
- Strenuous activity
- Pelvic surgery
- Connective tissue disorders
Urogynaecological surgery helps to treat pelvic floor dysfunction. Your gynaecologist may recommend the surgery if you struggle with:
- Urinary incontinence
- Pelvic organ prolapse
- Overactive bladder syndrome
- Voiding and defecatory dysfunction
- Faecal incontinence
- Vaginal agenesis
What are the types of urogynaecological surgeries?
There are different types of urogynaecological surgery options such as:
- Abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy – This is a procedure where a synthetic mesh is inserted in the vagina to support it.
- Colporrhaphy – This procedure is normally indicated when the bladder or the rectum is bulging into the vagina.
- Laparoscopic Burch procedure – This procedure involves the surgeon stitching the vagina securely to the ligaments in the pelvis. This is done to stop the bladder from moving down, allowing urine to escape during a stressful activity.
- Overlapping anal sphincteroplasty procedure – This is a procedure that involves the surgical reconstruction of the anal sphincter in order to restore its function. This is normally indicated to treat faecal incontinence, the inability to control the passing of stool or gas.
- Ureteral stent placement – This is a surgical procedure where a ureteral stent is placed to ensure that urine can pass from the kidney.
- Bladder suspension surgery – This is a procedure that involves moving a sagging bladder back to its original location to help treat stress incontinence.
- Culposuspension – This involves the use of stitches to lift the vaginal wall in order to provide support to the bladders, neck and urethra. This then prevents bladder leakage.